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1.5 to 7 million years ago there was a chalk bed resting on the layers of shell marl and Rupelian clay on Petersberg hill. This formed a level plateau, the land surface of what was to become the Rhine River. This chalk bed disappeared completely as a result of erosion after the Ice Age around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, turning Petersberg and its sharp peak into an isolated hill.

The hill is 246 m high with a broad reach from east to west. The southern side has sharp, irregular bulges with declivities of between 10 and 30° that protect against strong north winds.

The soil: Petersberg appears to be a giant water formation with major alluvial deposits of various types of clay, lime marl and large intermediate layers of shell limestone. Here, large clusters of well-preserved shells of the Pectunculus genus have been found, shells that came from the sea and not from freshwater. On the southwestern side, in the middle of the hill, there is also a certain quantity of loess and loam.